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Minutemen

Minutemen


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La milicia establecida antes del comienzo de la Revolución Americana en Massachusetts y otras colonias fueron llamadas Minutemen porque estaban listas para cualquier emergencia "con un minuto de aviso". Esta organización se creó para eludir a la milicia regular, muchos de cuyos oficiales eran conservadores. Después de que la organización había comenzado espontáneamente en secciones de la colonia, el congreso provincial de Massachusetts ordenó a otras ciudades que hicieran lo mismo. La organización nunca se completó debido al temprano estallido de las hostilidades. Solo está disponible una lista fragmentaria de la lista de Massachusetts.


Oculto a la vista

Durante la Guerra Fría, se colocó un vasto arsenal de misiles nucleares en las Grandes Llanuras. Ocultos a la vista, durante treinta años se mantuvieron en alerta constante 1.000 misiles, cientos permanecen hoy. El misil Minuteman sigue siendo un arma icónica en el arsenal nuclear estadounidense. Tiene el poder de destruir la civilización, pero está destinado a ser un elemento de disuasión nuclear para mantener la paz y prevenir la guerra. Lee mas

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Visita un misil nuclear en Delta-09

El silo de misiles Delta-09 brinda una oportunidad única de ver un misil nuclear una vez en alerta constante durante la Guerra Fría.

Visita Delta-01

Camine hasta la puerta de la instalación que una vez controló diez misiles nucleares, los diez misiles de Delta Flight.

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Visitas virtuales

Visite la primera línea de la Guerra Fría desde la comodidad de su dispositivo digital. Vaya detrás de escena dentro de Delta-01 y Delta-09.

Tour del teléfono celular

Un recorrido por teléfono celular narrado por guardabosques explica la historia de los misiles Minuteman de la Guerra Fría en las Grandes Llanuras.


Minutemen

Más que cualquier otra banda de hardcore, los Minutemen personificaron los ideales independientes de libre pensamiento que formaban el núcleo de la música punk / alternativa. Salvajes eclécticos y políticamente revolucionarios, los Minutemen nunca se quedaron en un lugar demasiado tiempo, pasaron del punk al free jazz, del funk al folk a una velocidad deslumbrante. Y estuvieron de gira y grabaron a una velocidad deslumbrante a principios de los 80, estaban constantemente en la carretera, produciendo discos cada vez que tenían la oportunidad. Al igual que sus compañeros Black Flag, Hüsker Dü, R.E.M., Sonic Youth y Meat Puppets, los Minutemen construyeron un gran y dedicado culto de seguidores en todo Estados Unidos a través de sus incansables giras. Al igual que sus compatriotas bandas independientes estadounidenses, el trío estaba preparado para irrumpir en el mundo de los principales sellos discográficos en 1986, y lo hubieran hecho si no fuera por la trágica muerte del guitarrista y vocalista D. Boon en diciembre de 1985. Aunque el bajista Mike Watt y el baterista George Hurley continuaron con fIREHOSE a finales de los 80, el legado de los Minutemen eclipsó a la nueva banda a finales de los 80 y principios de los 90, ya que el trío de San Pedro influyó en varias generaciones de músicos.

D. Boon y Mike Watt comenzaron a tocar música cuando eran adolescentes a mediados de los 70, cubriendo los estándares del hard rock de los 70. Después de graduarse de la escuela secundaria en 1976, escucharon sus primeros discos de punk rock, lo que marcó un cambio significativo en su desarrollo musical. Una vez que Boon y Watt escucharon el punk, comenzaron a escribir sus propias canciones y decidieron formar su primera banda de rock & roll en toda regla. En 1980, la pareja formó un cuarteto llamado Reactionaries, que incluía al baterista Frank Tonche y un segundo guitarrista. A los pocos meses, su segundo guitarrista se fue y la banda cambió su nombre a Minutemen, ya que la mayoría de sus canciones no duraban mucho más de un minuto. Grabaron un sencillo con Tonche antes de que George Hurley lo reemplazara. Después de que Hurley se uniera a la banda, los Minutemen grabaron Paranoid Time, su primer EP, el disco fue lanzado en SST Records en 1981. Desde el principio, la banda fue ecléctica y política, pero no encontraron su voz hasta su primer larga duración. álbum, The Punch Line de 1981.

Tras el lanzamiento de The Punch Line, los Minutemen se embarcaron en un calendario de giras agotador, conduciendo por Estados Unidos y tocando en cualquier ciudad donde pudieran conseguir un concierto. También grababan con frecuencia. Todos sus discos principales aparecieron en SST Records, pero también publicaron temas seleccionados y EP para otros sellos independientes, comenzando con el EP Bean-Spill de 1982, que apareció en Thermidor Records. El segundo álbum de larga duración de la banda, What Makes a Man Start Fires ?, de 1983, les valió una considerable aclamación de la crítica en la prensa alternativa y clandestina. Más tarde, en 1983, lanzaron su tercer álbum, Buzz or Howl Under the Influence of Heat.

A fines de 1983, los Minutemen se habían convertido en una de las bandas más populares del underground estadounidense, un estatus que solo construyeron durante 1984. Ese año, lanzaron el álbum doble Double Nickels on the Dime. La duración del álbum fue una respuesta al doble álbum de 1984 de Hüsker Dü, Zen Arcade, pero la extensión ampliada le dio al grupo la oportunidad de estirarse y mostrar su creciente profundidad y visión musical. Double Nickels on the Dime fue un éxito clandestino considerable, lo que le valió una considerable reproducción en la radio universitaria y elogios de la crítica, muchos de los cuales lo nombraron uno de los mejores álbumes del año. También en 1984, la banda lanzó una colección de tomas descartadas y material inédito llamado The Politics of Time en New Alliance Records.

A lo largo de 1985, los Minutemen produjeron grabaciones, comenzando con el EP Tour-Spiel en Reflex Records. Fue seguida por la retrospectiva My First Bells, que se lanzó solo en cassette, que fue lanzada en SST. Después de My First Bells, el grupo publicó otro EP, Project Mersh, que incluía versiones de bandas de rock de arena "comerciales", además de varios "spiels" originales y largos. Casi al mismo tiempo, el grupo grabó el EP Minuteflag, una colaboración única con Black Flag. Finalmente, los Minutemen lanzaron la continuación completa de Double Nickels on the Dime, 3-Way Tie (For Last), hacia finales de año. Al igual que su predecesor, 3-Way Tie (For Last) recibió críticas positivas abrumadoras, incluidos avisos en publicaciones convencionales.

En diciembre de 1985, D. Boon y su novia conducían a casa desde la casa de uno de sus parientes cuando se vieron involucrados en un fatal accidente automovilístico. Durante la primera parte de 1986, Mike Watt y George Hurley intentaron decidir si seguirían tocando música. Durante este tiempo, se compiló y publicó el resultado de la votación en vivo. Después de unos meses, tanto Watt como Hurley habían decidido dejar la música cuando fueron convencidos de continuar tocando por un apasionado fan y guitarrista de Minutemen llamado Ed Crawford. Watt, Hurley y Crawford formaron fIREHOSE en 1986 y más tarde ese mismo año, la nueva banda lanzó su álbum debut, Ragin ', Full-On. fIREHOSE estuvo de gira y grabó durante los siguientes siete años, firmando con el sello principal Columbia en 1991.


Período de la Guerra Revolucionaria Estadounidense [editar | editar fuente]

Este sello fue uno de un conjunto de tres emitidos en 1925. El poema en las placas es de Ralph Waldo Emerson.

En 1774, el general Thomas Gage, el nuevo gobernador de Massachusetts, trató de hacer cumplir las Leyes Intolerables, que estaban diseñadas para quitar el poder a las ciudades. Samuel Adams presionó para que las convenciones del condado fortalecieran la resistencia revolucionaria. Gage intentó sentar su propia corte en Worcester, pero la gente del pueblo impidió que la corte se sentara. Dos mil milicianos marcharon para intimidar a los jueces y hacer que se fueran. Esta fue la primera vez que el pueblo utilizó la milicia para impedir que los representantes del rey actuaran por órdenes reales y en contra de la opinión popular. Gage respondió preparándose para marchar a recoger municiones de los provinciales. Por 50 millas alrededor de Boston, los milicianos marcharon en respuesta. Al mediodía del día siguiente, casi 4000 personas estaban en el campo común en Cambridge. Los provinciales consiguieron que los jueces dimitieran y se marcharan. Gage se abstuvo de intentar sentarse en un tribunal en Worcester.

Los colonos de Worcester se reunieron e idearon un nuevo plan de movilización de milicias en la Convención del condado. La Convención requería que todos los oficiales de la milicia renunciaran. Los oficiales fueron elegidos luego por sus regimientos. A su vez, los oficiales designaron a 1/3 de su regimiento de milicias como Minutemen. Otros condados siguieron el ejemplo de Worcester, eligiendo nuevos oficiales de la milicia y nombrando a los Minutemen.

Gage llevó a cabo varias demostraciones de poder de "mostrar la bandera" en Massachusetts que mostraron a los funcionarios del gobierno local que el plan de movilización "Minuteman" funcionó bien. Cuando se trataba de practicar formaciones con sus armas, los británicos principalmente solo practicaban en formaciones y marchas. Además de no tener un área para practicar disparos en vivo porque estaban apiñados en Boston, los británicos sabían que en la guerra del siglo XVIII el movimiento de los cuerpos de los hombres y sus formaciones para maximizar la línea de fuego era lo más difícil y, por lo tanto, más importante. parte del ejercicio militar. La milicia planificó ampliamente con elaborados planes para alarmar y responder a los movimientos de las fuerzas del rey fuera de Boston. La reunión frecuente de las compañías de minutos también construyó la cohesión de la unidad y la familiaridad con el disparo en vivo, lo que aumentó la efectividad de las compañías de minutos. Las autoridades reales dieron inadvertidamente la validación de los nuevos planes de movilización de Minuteman mediante varias demostraciones de "mostrar la bandera" del general Gage hasta 1774.

Las autoridades reales en Boston habían visto aparecer este número cada vez mayor de milicias y pensaron que si enviaban una fuerza considerable a Concord para incautar municiones y provisiones allí (que consideraban propiedad del rey, ya que se pagó para defender las colonias de los indios americanos amenaza), la milicia no interferiría. Los eventos del 19 de abril de 1775 demostraron que estaban equivocados cuando la movilización envió a un gran número de minuteros para enfrentarlos en Concord que, con la llegada de la milicia de movimiento más lento, los superaron rápidamente en número y forzaron una derrota estratégica en el coronel Smith obligándolo a regresar a Boston. . El plan de movilización funcionó tan bien que solo la llegada oportuna de una columna de relevo al mando de Lord Percy en Lexington evitó la aniquilación o la rendición de la columna de la carretera original.

Monumento a los Minutemen en Hollis, New Hampshire


Historia

Minute Men Staffing fue formado por Sam Lucarelli en 1968 con el dinero que ahorró mientras trabajaba como distribuidor de bebidas.

En lugar de invertir en el pago inicial de una casa, Sam se centró en un tipo diferente de visión: ganarse la lealtad de los clientes redefiniendo el término "compromiso de servicio" en la naciente industria de ayuda temporal.

Los amigos de Sam todavía cuentan cómo equilibró su trabajo de tiempo completo como conductor con las exigencias del espíritu empresarial. A menudo coordinaba los envíos de refrescos con los cambios de turno de la planta en caso de que un capataz se encontrara con falta de personal. Una llamada rápida a la sala de despacho y Minute Men completó la fuerza laboral del día. No era inusual en aquellos días ver a Sam llevar a los trabajadores a los sitios de los clientes en su camioneta o meterse en un baño en un restaurante de comida rápida para ponerse su traje justo a tiempo para una llamada de ventas.

A principios de la década de 1970, Minute Men Staffing se estaba ganando una sólida reputación no solo por su capacidad de respuesta a los clientes, sino también por el trato justo de sus empleados. Muchos de los atletas profesionales de Cleveland durante este período complementaron sus ingresos fuera de temporada trabajando para la empresa. Rocky Colavito y Buddy Bell son solo algunos de los ex jugadores de los Indios de Cleveland que a veces acompañaban a Sam en ventas y llamadas de servicio.

En 1972, Minute Men decidió responder a la creciente demanda de sus clientes de conductores de camiones calificados de manera temporal y, eventualmente, permanente. Transportation Unlimited, Inc. se convirtió en la primera rama de lo que hoy se conoce como The Minute Men Human Resource System. Transportation Unlimited y Minute Men crecieron juntos de manera constante durante las siguientes dos décadas, luego de que algunas de sus firmas clientes con operaciones nacionales fuera de Ohio y la apertura de oficinas en Florida, Nueva Orleans y Pittsburgh.

En la actualidad, Minute Men Staffing se centra en la región de los Grandes Lagos y brinda apoyo a los clientes de las sucursales de Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Columbus y Cincinnati.

La revista Harvard University and Inc. ha reconocido a The Minute Men Human Resource System como una de las 100 principales empresas estadounidenses con sede en un barrio del centro de la ciudad. A nivel local, Minute Men ha sido incluido en múltiples ocasiones en la lista Weatherhead 100 de Case Western Reserve University de compañías de rápido crecimiento, y ha sido incluido en el Salón de la Fama de Empresas Familiares de CWRU.

Más información sobre la dotación de personal de Minute Men

Deje que Minute Men Staffing le proporcione una cotización rápida y gratuita hoy mismo. Haga clic en el botón de abajo para comenzar o llame al 1-877-873-8856.


Minutemen - Historia

Un misil Delta Flight está siendo retirado de su silo. ROBERT LYON

Historia de los sitios de misiles Minuteman

El sistema de misiles ICBM Minuteman

El 4 de octubre de 1957, la Unión Soviética puso en órbita con éxito el primer satélite artificial del mundo, el Sputnik. Los radioaficionados en el este de los Estados Unidos giraron sus diales a las bandas de frecuencia más bajas y escucharon ansiosamente mientras el Sputnik de 184 libras emitía un "... bip ... bip ... bip ...". mientras pasa por encima. Otros operadores de radio grabaron rápidamente la transmisión y, en cuestión de horas, los estadounidenses en sus salas de estar escucharon la transmisión del Sputnik a través de flashes de noticias de radio y televisión. El mensaje parecía confirmar los peores temores de Estados Unidos: los soviéticos habían superado tecnológicamente a Estados Unidos y habían ganado la supremacía del espacio exterior. La comunidad científica soviética perdió poco tiempo alardeando de su aparente victoria. Inmediatamente después del lanzamiento, un científico moscovita comentó: "Los estadounidenses diseñan mejores aletas traseras de automóviles, pero nosotros diseñamos los mejores misiles balísticos intercontinentales y satélites terrestres". En los Estados Unidos, un titular proclamaba: "Estados Unidos debe ponerse al día con los rojos o estamos Muerto. "

En verdad, la importancia del lanzamiento exitoso no fue tanto el Sputnik, sino el enorme cohete soviético que lanzó el satélite al espacio. Con Sputnik, que en ruso significa "compañero de viaje", los soviéticos demostraron la capacidad de su lanzador SS-6 para impulsar un misil hacia un objetivo a miles de kilómetros de distancia. Cuatro años antes, los soviéticos hicieron explotar el "Hbomb". Ahora, la aterradora perspectiva de que un misil soviético lanzara una bomba nuclear a una ciudad estadounidense en menos de una hora revivió lo que algunos llamaron una "atmósfera de Pearl Harbor" en todo Estados Unidos. A instancias de sus asesores militares y bajo una tremenda presión pública, el presidente Dwight D. Eisenhower aceleró a regañadientes el programa de misiles balísticos intercontinentales de Estados Unidos.

El impacto del Sputnik revirtió abruptamente lo que el secretario de la Fuerza Aérea, Donald Quarles, había caracterizado como el "enfoque de los pobres" de Estados Unidos al programa de misiles balísticos intercontinentales. En los seis meses posteriores al Sputnik, el presupuesto de investigación y desarrollo espacial de la nación se disparó de un promedio de 500 millones de dólares al año a más de 10 500 millones de dólares. Gran parte del dinero se destinó al desarrollo del misil Minuteman. En 1958, el Congreso aumentó la asignación para Minuteman de $ 50 a $ 140 millones. Al año siguiente, el Congreso agregó dos mil millones de dólares al presupuesto de Minuteman, que se distribuirá durante los próximos cinco años.

El vicepresidente Richard M. Nixon, el presidente Dwight D. Eisenhower y el secretario de Estado John Foster Dulles (de izquierda a derecha) en el hotel Brown Palace, Denver, Colorado, agosto de 1952. DEPARTAMENTO DE HISTORIA OCCIDENTAL, BIBLIOTECA PÚBLICA DE DENVER.

Sputnik provocó el desarrollo y despliegue del misil Minuteman. Pero los orígenes del programa de misiles Minuteman estaban profundamente arraigados en los años inmediatamente posteriores a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, cuando las dos superpotencias del mundo comenzaron a participar en la carrera armamentista en espiral de la Guerra Fría.

El 7 de enero de 1954, el presidente Eisenhower pronunció su primer discurso sobre el estado de la Unión a la nación. Luego de declarar que "la libertad estadounidense está amenazada mientras la conspiración comunista exista en su alcance, poder y hostilidad actuales", el presidente delineó sus planes para defender a la Nación contra esa amenaza. "No seremos agresores", dijo, "pero nosotros ... tenemos y mantendremos una capacidad masiva para contraatacar". Los comentarios de Eisenhower reflejaron la base doctrinal detrás de gran parte de la planificación estratégica de Estados Unidos durante la era de la Guerra Fría.

La opinión del presidente Eisenhower sobre la Unión Soviética era similar a la que había expresado casi ocho años antes George Kennan, un diplomático de la embajada de Estados Unidos en Moscú. Al ver a los soviéticos rodearse de una "zona de amortiguamiento" que incluía gran parte de Europa oriental después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Kennan había argumentado que estos movimientos eran el resultado de un fanático "expansionismo" soviético que, en última instancia, estaba empeñado en perturbar la sociedad estadounidense, destruyendo la forma estadounidense de vida, y rompiendo la autoridad internacional de América. La única forma de lidiar con esta amenaza, sugirió Kennan, era que Estados Unidos adoptara una política de "contención paciente pero firme y vigilante de las tendencias expansivas rusas".

Aunque buena en teoría, la contención resultó casi imposible de poner en práctica. Para contener verdaderamente la omnipresente amenaza soviética, observó un alto funcionario estadounidense en 1954, la nación tendría que prepararse para el combate "en el Ártico y en los trópicos de Asia, en el Cercano Oriente y en Europa por mar, por tierra, y por aire ". Pero mientras la Unión Soviética había realizado un esfuerzo masivo para reconstruir su ejército y reponer las armas convencionales después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Estados Unidos se había desmovilizado a un ritmo vertiginoso. Aprovechando su posición como único poseedor de la bomba atómica, Estados Unidos siguió lo que algunos observadores llamaron una política de defensa de "sótano de gangas", utilizando armas nucleares como sustitutos de los soldados de infantería.

Fiscalmente conservador, el presidente Eisenhower también quería mantener el arsenal atómico de Estados Unidos en la cantidad mínima necesaria para disuadir a Moscú. El presidente y su principal asesor económico, Arthur H. Burns, creían que el gobierno federal necesitaba recortar el gasto, reducir los impuestos y equilibrar el presupuesto para lograr un crecimiento económico estable. A pesar de las protestas del Estado Mayor Conjunto, Eisenhower presionó continuamente por grandes recortes en el gasto militar, que consumieron casi el 70% del presupuesto nacional en el momento en que asumió el cargo en 1953.

El programa americano de misiles balísticos intercontinentales

El Subsecretario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Fuerza Aérea Trevor Gardner (izquierda) y el Mayor General Bernard A. Schriever (derecha) fueron actores clave en el desarrollo de misiles balísticos intercontinentales, incluido el Minuteman. FUERZA AÉREA DE EE. UU., DIVISIÓN DE HISTORIA.

Los planificadores militares estadounidenses comenzaron a desarrollar misiles balísticos inmediatamente después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Pero a fines de la década de 1940, el programa de misiles de Estados Unidos comenzó a languidecer, en gran parte porque la superioridad nuclear de la nación parecía segura. En 1949, cuando la Unión Soviética desarrolló su bomba atómica, Estados Unidos respondió con un arma aún más poderosa: un dispositivo termonuclear que usaba un pequeño disparador atómico para iniciar una reacción de fusión en isótopos de hidrógeno. Probada con éxito en 1952, la bomba H parecía garantizar la superioridad nuclear de Estados Unidos. Pero en agosto de 1953, los soviéticos hicieron explotar su propia bomba H, y muchos expertos militares estadounidenses también creían que los soviéticos podían lanzar su nueva arma a través de un misil balístico intercontinental. Por primera vez, los soviéticos parecían dispuestos a tomar la delantera en la carrera armamentista.

Tras la exitosa prueba de la bomba H de los soviéticos, dos organizaciones estadounidenses independientes reevaluaron la importancia estratégica de los misiles balísticos intercontinentales para la seguridad nacional. Como observó el Dr. Bruno Augenstein de la Corporación RAND, "si la Unión Soviética venciera a Estados Unidos en una carrera por el misil balístico intercontinental, las consecuencias serían catastróficas". Un comité de la Fuerza Aérea encabezado por el Dr. John von Neumann, profesor de matemáticas de la Universidad de Princeton, también evaluó la carrera armamentista. Con el nombre en código de "Comité de la Tetera", el grupo de von Neumann investigó "el impacto de la [bomba] termonuclear en el desarrollo de misiles estratégicos y la posibilidad de que la Unión Soviética pudiera estar algo por delante de Estados Unidos". En febrero de 1954, RAND y el Comité de la Tetera publicaron sus informes, los cuales llegaron a la misma conclusión: los avances recientes en la tecnología termonuclear hicieron que un misil balístico intercontinental fuera práctico. Además, un misil balístico intercontinental "podría desarrollarse y desplegarse con suficiente antelación para contrarrestar la amenaza soviética pendiente si se autorizaran talentos excepcionales, fondos adecuados y nuevas técnicas de gestión adaptadas a la urgencia de la situación".

En mayo de 1954, la Fuerza Aérea había trazado un plan de desarrollo para la nueva arma. En junio, el Vicejefe de Estado Mayor, general Thomas D. White, ordenó al Comando de Investigación y Desarrollo Aéreo "proceder con el desarrollo de un misil balístico intercontinental a la mayor velocidad posible, limitado únicamente por el avance de la tecnología en los diversos campos en cuestión". En julio , la Fuerza Aérea estableció una oficina de proyectos especial para administrar el programa. Con sede en la costa oeste, la nueva agencia se denominó en consecuencia División de Desarrollo Occidental. Bernard A. Schriever, un general de brigada de 43 años, dirigió la División de Desarrollo Occidental. La Fuerza Aérea esperaba que el joven general recién ascendido pusiera un sistema de armas balístico intercontinental completamente operativo en manos del Comando Aéreo Estratégico dentro de seis años. La Fuerza Aérea consideró que la misión de la División de Desarrollo Occidental era tan importante para la seguridad nacional que incluso sus iniciales, WDD, se clasificaron más allá del alto secreto.

El 5 de agosto de 1954, el general Schriever y un pequeño grupo de oficiales militares se reunieron en una escuela parroquial abandonada en el suburbio de Inglewood en Los Ángeles para comenzar su trabajo. Para no despertar la curiosidad de los vecinos, los agentes vestían de civil. El periodista Roy Neal, que hizo una crónica del desarrollo del sistema de misiles Minuteman, describió lo que encontraron:

Ningún letrero identificaba a la escuela blanca como la División de Desarrollo Occidental.

. . . Las ventanas estaban heladas y con barrotes pesados. Todas las puertas exteriores, excepto una, estaban cerradas. La única entrada era a través de un estacionamiento vallado con alambres de cadena. Un guardia de seguridad vigilaba la puerta. Algunos de los veteranos recuerdan. . . el comentario del niño de la escuela que paseaba por el edificio de la escuela.

Mirando el vidrio esmerilado y las ventanas con barrotes de acero, le dijo a un amigo: "Vaya, me alegro de no ir a la escuela aquí".

En este escenario discreto pero cuidadosamente asegurado, el personal cuidadosamente seleccionado de la División de Desarrollo Occidental comenzó el esfuerzo para construir un misil balístico intercontinental.

1945
Bombardeo de Hiroshima y Nagasaki

1946
Discurso de la cortina de hierro de Churchill

1948
Golpe comunista en Checoslovaquia / Comienza el bloqueo de Berlín

1949
Establecimiento de la OTAN / URSS explota bomba atómica / Toma comunista de China

1950
Pacto chino-soviético / Comienza la guerra de Corea

1954
Partido Comunista proscrito en EE. UU.

1955
Pacto de Varsovia / Primer ejercicio de defensa civil de EE. UU.

1956
Levantamiento húngaro / Krushchev le dice a EE. UU.: Te enterraremos

1958
Eisenhower autoriza el programa de misiles Minuteman

1960
Avión espía U-2 derribado por la URSS

1961
Bahía de Cochinos / Muro de Berlín construido / Eisenhower advierte sobre complejo militar-industrial / Primer vuelo de prueba exitoso de Minuteman

1962
Crisis de los misiles cubanos / Minuteman I se pone en alerta

1963
La línea directa conecta los Estados Unidos y la URSS / Tratado de prohibición limitada de pruebas

1964
China detona bomba atómica

1966
Minuteman II se pone en alerta

1968
Invasión soviética de Checoslovaquia

1970
Minuteman III se pone en alerta

1973
Guerra de Yom Kipur: Estados Unidos está en alerta mundial

1983
Reagan propone la Iniciativa de Defensa Estratégica de Star Wars (SDI)

1989
Las naciones de Europa del Este rompen con Moscú / cae el muro de Berline

1991
Bush y Gorbachov firman el tratado START / El sistema Minuteman II comienza a desactivarse

1993
66 ° Escuadrón de Misiles, incluido Delta Flight, inactivo

Misiles balísticos intercontinentales de primera generación: Atlas y Titan

Los misiles V-2 alemanes, que Adolph Hitler aclamó como Vergeltungswaffe (armas de venganza), se utilizaron contra los Aliados durante los últimos años de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. MUSEO DEUTSCHE, MUNICH, ALEMANIA.

El personal de la División de Desarrollo Occidental comenzó su trabajo reviviendo un proyecto de misiles que se había originado poco después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En 1946, la Fuerza Aérea había contratado a Convair Corporation para diseñar un misil balístico de largo alcance llamado MX-774. Como muchos proyectos de misiles de la posguerra, el MX-774 perdió la mayor parte de su financiación gubernamental después de solo un año. Pero, en lugar de abandonar el proyecto, Convair Corporation continuó trabajando por su cuenta, avanzando constantemente en el estado de la tecnología de misiles. En 1951, la Fuerza Aérea reconoció estos esfuerzos al contratar a la compañía para desarrollar planes para un misil más avanzado, llamado Atlas.

El Atlas era esencialmente una versión muy evolucionada del misil alemán V-2, que Alemania había utilizado contra los Aliados durante los últimos años de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Al igual que el V-2, el Atlas estaba propulsado por motores de cohetes que quemaban una mezcla de combustible líquido y oxidante. Pero mientras que el V-2 tenía un alcance efectivo de solo unos pocos cientos de millas, el Atlas tenía que entregar su carga útil a un objetivo a más de 5,000 millas de distancia. Convair Corporation podría haber cumplido este requisito al diseñar el Atlas como una versión enorme del V-2. En cambio, los ingenieros de Convair buscaron una solución más sofisticada. Al darse cuenta de que el alcance de un misil podría aumentarse reduciendo su peso, Convair equipó el Atlas con una innovadora estructura ultraligera. Convair ensambló el misil a partir de anillos de acero inoxidable delgados como el papel, apilados como tubos de estufa y soldados en las costuras para formar cilindros. Luego, los cilindros se inflaron con gas nitrógeno para darle al misil su integridad estructural.

En 1954, el Atlas era el misil balístico más avanzado de la nación. No obstante, el misil estaba a años de producirse. Ningún prototipo había sido probado en vuelo, y algunos escépticos temían que cuando los potentes motores de Atlas se encendieran por primera vez, la estructura del avión de piel delgada del misil se doblaría sobre sí misma, dejando las esperanzas de Estados Unidos de un misil balístico intercontinental tendido en la plataforma de lanzamiento como una bola gigantesca. de papel de aluminio.

El general Schriever y su personal estaban al tanto de estas preocupaciones. Entonces, mientras procedían con el programa Atlas, también buscaron una copia de seguridad. En octubre de 1955, la Fuerza Aérea contrató a Glenn L. Martin Company para producir un nuevo misil balístico intercontinental llamado Titan. Al igual que el Atlas, el Titán usó propulsores líquidos, pero su diseño avanzado de dos etapas permitió un fuselaje convencional y más confiable.

Misil Atlas esperando el lanzamiento de prueba desde Cabo Cañaveral en la víspera de Navidad de 1958. Recuadro: Lanzamiento de prueba del misil Atlas D. El desarrollo del misil Minuteman de combustible sólido aceleró la jubilación anticipada de la primera generación de misiles balísticos intercontinentales de combustible líquido, como el Atlas D y el Atlas E, que la Fuerza Aérea desactivó en 1965. FUERZA AÉREA DE EE. UU., Foto insertada CONVAIR (DIVISIÓN DE ASTRONÁUTICA ), CORPORACIÓN GENERAL DYNAMICS.

Aún así, el programa de misiles de Estados Unidos se vio obstaculizado por problemas de financiación. En 1956, el secretario de la Fuerza Aérea Donald Quarles rechazó el presupuesto operativo para el programa de misiles balísticos intercontinentales y propuso la eliminación de Atlas o Titan, que consideró redundante. Ese mismo año, la Fuerza Aérea perdió a su defensor más eficaz de los misiles cuando el subsecretario Trevor Gardner, el "Zar de los misiles", anunció su retiro, citando los continuos recortes en sus presupuestos de investigación y desarrollo de misiles. Sin inmutarse por el retiro de Gardner, la campaña de austeridad de Quarles continuó en 1957 cuando el programa de misiles balísticos se redujo drásticamente en $ 200 millones. En julio, la administración de Eisenhower inició aún más medidas de ahorro de costos, incluida la reducción de las entregas de misiles, la reducción de las horas extraordinarias y la demora de los pagos a los contratistas.

Fuerza en números: la brecha de los misiles

Lanzamiento de prueba del Titán I, Base de la Fuerza Aérea Vandenberg, 4 de mayo de 1962. El misil Titán poseía un mayor alcance y una mayor carga útil que el Atlas. Aún así, el Titán fue igualmente efímero. Todos los misiles Titán fueron desactivados en junio de 1965. FUERZA AÉREA DE EE. UU.

Este clima económico frugal cambió drásticamente después del Sputnik. En octubre de 1957, cuando la Unión Soviética anunció que había utilizado un misil balístico intercontinental de combustible líquido para poner en órbita el Sputnik, los científicos y políticos estadounidenses temieron una significativa "brecha de misiles". En cuestión de meses, los periodistas y analistas de inteligencia comenzaron a afirmar que la fuerza de misiles soviéticos podría superar en número al arsenal estadounidense hasta en 16 a uno para 1960. La creciente sensación de inseguridad de Estados Unidos no pasó desapercibida para los funcionarios soviéticos, que anunciaron con alegría que sus fábricas estaban funcionando. misiles "como salchichas". Enfrentando severas críticas por permitir que Estados Unidos se quedara atrás en la carrera armamentista, la administración Eisenhower invirtió más dinero en sus programas de misiles y aumentó el presupuesto anual de investigación y desarrollo espacial de la nación en más de veinte veces dentro de los seis meses posteriores al Sputnik. La administración también destacó el desarrollo de los misiles Atlas y Titan. Un portavoz del gobierno señaló que el programa de misiles de Estados Unidos se estaba diseñando cuidadosamente, primero para "alcanzar la perfección" y luego para "desarrollar la capacidad de producir en volumen una vez que se alcanza la perfección".

Pero los misiles balísticos intercontinentales de primera generación de Estados Unidos no eran perfectos ni se podían producir en masa. Unas semanas después del Sputnik, el Wall Street Journal observó que las debilidades de los misiles balísticos intercontinentales estadounidenses "son tan profundas que ... los generales están seguros de que [los misiles] serán descartados por completo después de la primera media docena de años". Atlas y Titan eran máquinas extraordinariamente complejas, hechas a mano, que contenían hasta 300.000 piezas, cada una de las cuales debía mantenerse en perfectas condiciones de funcionamiento. Los propulsores líquidos que accionaban los motores de los misiles eran volátiles y corrosivos, y no podían colocarse en los tanques de combustible hasta inmediatamente antes del lanzamiento. Además, las tripulaciones de misiles necesitaron hasta dos horas para alimentar los misiles. En consecuencia, en lugar de ser "armas estables en un estado de preparación permanente", estos misiles balísticos intercontinentales requerían "la atención desesperada y constante que se le otorga a un hombre que recibe respiración artificial". The missiles were not a "push button affair but will require a highly-trained crew . . . several times as large as the largest bombing crew. " Many of these problems could be solved, the Wall Street Journal suggested, by developing a simplified "second generation" of missiles powered by solid-fuel rocket engines.

"A lot of work had been done on solids prior to the initiation of the ICBM program in 1954," recalled General Schriever in a 1973 interview, "but there were a number of things that ruled against using solids at that time." Solid propellants in the mid-1950s could not provide enough power to hurl a thermonuclear warhead across an ocean. Also, solids were difficult to manufacture. They were hard to ignite, and there was no way to control their combustion or direct their thrust after ignition. Given these constraints, the Air Force believed that liquid-fueled missiles were "the only immediate way to go ahead. " But the Air Force did not entirely abandon the concept of a solid-fuel missile. In 1956, Schriever reluctantly approved a low-level research program "aimed toward the evolution of a high-thrust . . . solid-fuel rocket." Schriever selected Colonel Edward Hall, Chief of Propulsion Development for the Western Development Division, to head the program. According to historian Robert Perry, Hall was a "near-fanatic" about the potential of solid-fuel missiles.

Colonel Edward Hall spearheaded the US Air Force effort to develop a solid fueled ICBM. COURTESY EDWARD HALL.

Colonel Edward Hall and his staff of engineers diligently researched their solid-fuel missile program. Within two years, Hall's group had solved most of the problems associated with solid-fuel rocket engines. In August 1957, the Air Force asked Hall to develop a medium-range, solid-fuel missile to be the land-based counterpart to the Navy's submarine-launched, solid-fuel Polaris. Within two weeks, Hall drew up specifications for a remarkable new missile whose range could be varied by simply assembling its three interchangeable propulsion stages in different combinations.

The new missile, dubbed "Weapon System Q," was "the first strategic weapon capable of true mass production," wrote Duke University historian George Reed. "To Hall, the new missile was the perfect weapon for a defense policy characterized by minimum expenditure and massive retaliation and he urged that this be its chief selling point." Sputnik made it easy for Colonel Hall to make the sale. A few days after the Sputnik launch, Hall went to the Pentagon with General Schriever to build support for the new missile. As they ascended the ranks of the military hierarchy, Hall refined his plans. By the end of 1957, he determined that "the ICBM version of Weapon System Q would be a three-stage, solid-fuel missile approximately 65 feet long, weighing approximately 65,000 pounds, and developing approximately 100,000-120,000 pounds of thrust at launch. " The missile would be stored vertically in underground silos and "would accelerate so quickly that it could fly through its exhaust flames and not be significantly damaged."

In February 1958, Hall and Schriever presented Weapon System Q to the Secretaries of the Air Force and Defense. "We got approval . . within 48 hours," Schriever recalled. The officers immediately renamed the project. On February 28, 1958, the New York Times reported that the Air Force had been authorized "to produce an advanced type of ballistic missile . . . called Minute Man."

By the end of March 1958, at least seven of the Nation's foremost aircraft manufacturers, including the Boeing Airplane Company, were competing to build the new missile. Although Seattle-based Boeing had built many of the Nation's largest strategic bombers, the company had virtually no experience with missiles. Still, Boeing mounted an all-out effort to win the Minuteman contract, assigning more than 100 employees to work on the project. When the Air Force selection board met to examine the proposals, one top official recalled that "there was no question . . . that Boeing was the right company for the job." In October 1958, the US government contracted with Boeing to assemble and test the new missile.

During the next few months, the rest of the Minuteman missile team came into place. The Thiokol Chemical Company of Brigham City, Utah, the Aerojet General Corporation of Sacramento, California, and the Hercules Powder Company of Magna, Utah, all won contracts to work on the missile's propulsion stages. Minuteman's guidance and control systems went to the Autonetics Division of North American Aviation in Downey, California. The AVCO Corporation of Boston contracted to build the missile's thermonuclear warhead.

Much of the development work for Minuteman took place in northern Utah. Thiokol and Hercules already operated plants in the area and, within a few months, Boeing moved into a new assembly plant that occupied 790 acres at Hill Air Force Base near Ogden. By the beginning of 1960, Boeing's Minuteman work force had grown to nearly 12,000, as the company started to assemble the missiles. Time magazine reported that the desert north of Salt Lake was "boiling" with activity:

Strange lights glare in the night, making the mountains shine, and a grumbling roar rolls across the desert. By day enormous clouds of steam-white smoke billow up . . . and drift over hills and valleys. Monstrous vehicles with curious burdens lumber along the roads.

All these strange goings-on mark the development of the Minuteman, the solid fuel missile that its proponents confidently expect will ultimately replace the liquid fuel Atlas as the US. 's standard ICBM.

Minuteman I test launch. Inset: A Minuteman ICBM, ready for testing at the Air Force Missile Test Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. US AIR FORCE.

According to journalist Roy Neal, the ICBM program created a new national industry: "Tens of thousands of industrial and Air Force managers, engineers, and workers [had] to be trained. New machine tools and test facilities [had to] come into being. . . . " These efforts changed "the face of America, the make-up of the Armed Forces and the industries that support them. "

At the end of 1960, the Air Force took the first Minuteman missile to Cape Canaveral, Florida, for flight testing. The compact new missile was only six feet in diameter and 53 feet high — about half the size of a Titan. Minuteman's three cylindrical, steel-cased propulsion stages were stacked one atop the other, with each stage slightly smaller in diameter than the one beneath it. Each stage was filled with a rubbery mixture of fuel and oxidizer, molded around a hollow, star-shaped core. The Minuteman's guidance system occupied a small compartment above the third stage. The "reentry vehicle" at the tip was identical to the nose-cone that would eventually contain a thermonuclear warhead.

Following two aborted launch attempts, the Air Force successfully fired the first Minuteman missile at 11:00 a. metro. on February 1, 1961. Even the most experienced missile watchers found it to be "a dazzling spectacle." When the missile's first-stage engine ignited, there was a loud bang. Then the missile began to rise on a column of flame and smoke. Unlike the Atlas or Titan missile, which one observer said left the ground "like a fat man getting out of an easy chair," the Minuteman missile "shot up like a skyrocket." The missile performed flawlessly. The three propulsion stages completed their burns on schedule, then detached themselves and plummeted back to earth, while the unarmed warhead hurled on toward its assigned destination. Twenty-five minutes after lift-off, the reentry vehicle splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean squarely on target — 4,600 miles away.

From his office in Washington D. C. , Air Force Chief of Staff General Thomas D. White described the launch as "one of the most significant steps this Nation has ever taken toward gaining intercontinental missile supremacy." An engineer who witnessed the event put it another way: "Brother," he said, "there goes the missile gap."

The "Underground" Air Force

By the time the flight test took place, the Air Force was already planning for Minuteman missile deployment. According to historian Jacob Neufeld, the Air Force conceptually developed its "ideal" ICBM base in 1955, during the early days of the Atlas program:

The missile would be sited inside fixed, underground facilities it was to have a quick launch reaction it was to be stored in a launching position the launch site would require minimal support and the launch units were to be self-supporting for two weeks.

Turning these ideas into reality, however, proved difficult. During the height of the "missile gap" hysteria, the Air Force hastily activated the Nation's first Atlas missiles at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Here, the Air Force stored the missiles horizontally in "coffins" — concrete-walled, above-ground enclosures. Before the missiles could be fired, servicemen had to raise each missile vertically on a launch pad and add fuel. The later Titan and Atlas F series missiles were stored upright in underground silos capped with massive "clamshell" doors. But Air Force engineers were worried that vibrations from the rocket engines might shake the missiles apart before launch. As a result, the Air Force equipped each silo with an elevator that raised the missile to the surface for firing. Although the missiles were stored with their tanks full of fuel, workers still needed to add volatile liquid oxygen right before launch.

The Air Force took a major step toward achieving its ideal basing system in 1960 with the development of Titan II, which used storable liquid propellants. The Air Force could store Titan II missiles with fully-loaded propellant tanks, and fire them directly from underground silos. Nonetheless, Titan II missiles still needed constant attention from an on-site crew.

When Minuteman was added to the Nation's arsenal, America acquired its first truly pushbutton — literally turn-key — missile system. Historian Ernest Schwiebert noted:

With the successful utilization of solid propellants, the Minuteman could hide in its lethal lair like a shotgun shell, ready for instant firing. The operational launcher could be unmanned, underground, and hardened to withstand the surface burst of a nuclear weapon. Each launcher housed a single weapon and the equipment necessary to support and fire it, and required only periodic maintenance. The missiles could be fired . at a moment's notice.

Just as ICBMs evolved, so did their launch facilities. The first Atlas missiles were stored upright on launch pads, where they were vulnerable to attack. Later, the missiles were kept in horizontal, concrete "coffins" and raised vertically before launch. Eventually, the Air Force moved ICBMs to underground silos elevators lifted them to the surface for launch. Titan II and Minuteman were the first ICBMs launched directly from underground silos.

Minuteman Deployment and Site Selection

President John F. Kennedy (center), accompanied by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara (far left), SAC Commander General Thomas S. Power (right), and Lt. General Howell M. Estes, Jr. (right background) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, March 1962. US AIR FORCE, HISTORY DIVISION.

The Air Force wanted to deploy Minuteman as a single, immense, "missile farm," equipped with as many as 1,500 missiles. However, the Air Force soon determined that "for reasons of economy 150 launchers should be concentrated in a single area, whenever possible, and that no area should contain fewer than 50 missiles." Consequently, the Air Force organized the Minuteman force into a series of administrative units called "wings," each comprised of three or four 50-missile squadrons. Each squadron was further subdivided into five smaller units, called "flights." A flight consisted of a single, manned, launch control facility, linked to ten, unmanned, underground, missile silos. The silos were separated from the launch control facility and from each other by a distance of several miles.

The Air Force initially considered putting Minuteman missiles as far south as Georgia, Texas, and Oklahoma. But when early models of Minuteman missiles fell short of their intended 5,500-mile range, the Air Force selected sites in the northern part of the United States, which was closer to the Soviet Union. In 1960, the Air Force decided to locate the first Minuteman installation on the high plains around Great Falls, Montana, at Malmstrom AFB. In the event of a nuclear accident or attack, the low population density near Malmstrom AFB would minimize civilian casualties. In addition, the region offered an established network of roads and, like much of the West, a large amount of easy-to-acquire public land.

The Air Force began constructing the Nation's first Minuteman missile field on March 16, 1961. In the spring of 1962, the Associated Press reported that the Montana silos were being "rushed to completion," and that the first missiles, each loaded with "one megaton of death and destruction," would be ready by late summer. Air Force crews began lowering the weapons into the silos at the end of July, and Malmstrom AFB's first ten-missile flight was hurriedly activated on October 27, 1962, at the height of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Minuteman Comes to Ellsworth Air Force Base

Military strategists began planning for a second Minuteman installation shortly after work got underway at Malmstrom AFB. In June 1960, the Air Force was authorized to add another 150 missiles to the Minuteman force. By early October, military strategists had narrowed their search for a new site to three locations in North and South Dakota. On January 5, 1961, US Senator Francis Case of South Dakota announced that Ellsworth AFB would be the headquarters for the Nation's second Minuteman deployment. Located about 12 miles east of Rapid City, Ellsworth AFB was founded in 1941 as the Rapid City Army Air Base. The Air Corps used the airfield to train B-17 bomber crews, and Ellsworth eventually served as home base for many of America's largest strategic bombers. The base was also headquarters for a Titan I missile squadron.

US ICBM Size Comparisons Atlas, Titan I, Titan II, Minuteman

Typical of all Minuteman installations, I the forces at Ellsworth AFB were organized into a missile wing. The 44th Strategic Missile Wing at Ellsworth AFB was activated in 1963, and was comprised of three 50-missile squadrons: the 66th, 67th, and 68th Strategic Missile Squadrons.

Each squadron was further subdivided into five smaller units, called flights. A flight consisted of a single, manned, underground launch control center (LCC), which was linked through a system of underground cables to ten, unmanned, launch facilities (LF). Each LF held one Minuteman missile stored in an underground silo. The silos were separated from the LCC and each other by a distance of several miles.

Although the Defense Department had not yet officially authorized the South Dakota Minuteman installation, Senator Case wanted the land acquired immediately so there would be "no loss of valuable time" once the project was approved. Local ranchers did not share Case's sense of urgency. Fearing that the government might offer below-market prices for their land, the ranchers established the Missile Area Landowners' Association to negotiate fair prices. The association assured fellow citizens that its actions would "not necessarily slow the national defense effort."

While real estate negotiations were underway, the South Dakota State Highway Department spent $650,000 from the Federal Bureau of Public Roads to improve 327 miles of roads leading to the proposed missile sites. By June 1961, Boeing was busy improving the infrastructure. Anticipating that the project would bring in more than 3,000 workers, the company raced to build mobile home camps and cafeterias near Wall, Sturgis, Belle Fourche, and Union Center, as well as in Rapid City.

By early summer, more than three-quarters of the local landowners agreed to give the government access to their land. Once the sites were finalized, the Ralph M. Parsons Company, an architectural and engineering firm from Los Angeles, prepared plans for the Minuteman installation. The Air Force assigned responsibility for construction to the US Army Corps of Engineers Ballistic Missile Construction Office. In July 1961, four of the nation's largest construction firms submitted bids for the project. The low bid came from Peter Kiewit Sons Company of Omaha, whose estimate of $56,220,274 was nearly $10 million below government projections.

On September 10, 1961, the groundbreaking ceremony for Ellsworth AFB's Minuteman installations took place at Site L-6 near Bear Butte. The festivities started with a bang. While the Sturgis High School band played, representatives from Boeing, Kiewit, the Corps of Engineers, and Ellsworth AFB set off an explosive charge to begin the excavation.

Despite extreme cold, high winds, and heavy snowfall, construction proceeded at a furious pace through the winter of 1961-62. In mid-December, the Corps of Engineers told reporters that "men are working seven days a week, three shifts a day on Minuteman construction. " A Corps spokesman said that crews were "able to dig five silo emplacements simultaneously. Each takes from four to ten days . . . " The first squadron, near Wall, was well underway, said the Corps, and work on the second squadron, near Union Center, had already started. In February 1962, General Delmar Wilson told the Rapid City Chamber of Commerce that despite an ongoing labor dispute between Peter Kiewit Sons and the Ironworkers Union, South Dakota's ICBM deployment suffered fewer work stoppages than any missile program in the Nation. "We're all out . . . to assure that our way of life is maintained," stated Wilson. "This missile project . is the number one project in the country today. If this guy in Russia wants to start a show, we'll be there to put a hole in him to the best of our ability."

By early summer of 1963, the steel fabrication was finished at all 165 South Dakota sites, and crews were completing the silos at the rate of one per day. On the last day of June, the first 20 silos were turned over to the Strategic Air Command. On October 23, the Nation's second wing of Minuteman ICBMs was fully operational. The work was completed nearly three weeks ahead of schedule.

The 44th Strategic Missile Wing
Construction of a Minuteman LF

Peter Kiewit Sons of Omaha, Nebraska, received $56 million from the US Air Force to construct the 150 missile silos and 15 control centers in South Dakota. The Rapid City Journal described how a Minuteman silo was built: "Conventional earthmoving equipment scoops an open cut 12 feet deep. A backhoe perclies on the edge of a large hole in this cut and digs a hole 20 feet deeper. The remaining 52 feet of depth is `mined' by a clamshell . When each hole is at the full depth of 84 feet, a steel `can' 12 feet in diameter is carefully positioned in it. Reinforced concrete is poured between the can and earth. " Work began on South Dakota's first Minuteman silo on September 10, 1961. By 1963, all 150 launchers were declared fully operational.

The Air Force excavated lengthy trenches several miles long to install the underground cables that connected the underground launch control centers with the distant missile silos. OMAHA WORLD-HERALD


US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

Delta One's underground launch control center (LCC) was constructed as two separate structural elements. The outside protective shell is 29 feet in diameter and 54 feet in length, and is made of reinforced concrete with four-foot-thick walls. The shell's interior is lined with 1/4-inch-thick steel plate. Suspended inside the shell is the second element: a box-like acoustical enclosure that contains the launch control consoles, communications and monitoring equipment, and crew accommodations. Delta One's "topside" structures include sleeping and eating facilities.


US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

Backbone of the US Nuclear Arsenal

While the Ellsworth AFB sites were under construction, the Air Force was building several other Minuteman installations. By the end of 1967, the Nation had 1,000 Minuteman missiles on alert in six separate deployment areas located throughout the north-central United States. In addition to the original installations at Malmstrom AFB and Ellsworth AFB, Minuteman complexes were deployed at Minot AFB and Grand Forks AFB in North Dakota, Whiteman AFB in Missouri, and F .E. Warren AFB in Wyoming. In addition, another squadron was established at Malmstrom AFB. At each installation the Air Force continued to improve and refine the Minuteman operational system.

Newly-elected President John F. Kennedy instigated one of the first significant improvements to the Minuteman weapon system. Soon after taking office in 1961, Kennedy learned that even if he ordered a massive nuclear retaliation to a Soviet attack, a portion of the Soviet's long-range nuclear force would survive to strike again. As a consequence, the Kennedy administration quickly abandoned the strategic policy of releasing America's entire nuclear arsenal in "one horrific spasm." Instead of massive retaliation, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara recommended a "flexible response." Should deterrence fail, McNamara proposed that America's nuclear weapons be deployed selectively. The first ICBMs would target enemy bombers and missile sites. The remaining ICBMs would be held in reserve, for potential use against Soviet cities. McNamara hoped that the threat to the civilian population would persuade the Soviet Union to end the conflict. McNamara began retooling America's nuclear forces, including Minuteman, to reflect the new military strategy.

However, Colonel Edward Hall and his engineers designed Minuteman to be a fastreacting, mass-attack weapon. Upon receiving the launch command, the officers at each Minuteman facility had to fire all ten missiles under their control. A selective launch of fewer than ten missiles was impossible. In order to conform with the new defense strategy, Air Force engineers had to redesign Minuteman's launch control complex. Historian Clyde Littlefield described the changes:

In order to conform to the new concept, engineering changes had to be made to allow a combat crew in a control center to switch targets and to fire one or more missiles selectively, conserving the remainder for later use. Greater flexibility in targeting and firing required a significant extension to the limited survival time [of each operational site]. The [original] Minuteman facility design did not provide for the protection of the power supply. At a control center, power generators were above the ground. When and if these generators stopped functioning, the operational potential of the system would be reduced to only six hours. Revised strategic concepts required that the weapon survive at least nine weeks after an initial enemy attack.

To meet this requirement, the Air Force put the generators in underground capsules next to each launch control center. Although the Air Force considered incorporating these generators into the Minuteman facilities at Ellsworth AFB, construction was already underway there, making the changes impractical. Consequently, the generator capsules began with the third Minuteman deployment area at Minot AFB in North Dakota.

The Next Generations: Minuteman II and III

By the time planning began for the final Minuteman deployment area, the Air Force had developed a vastly improved version of the missile. Called Minuteman II, the new missile offered improved range, greater payload, more flexible targeting, and greater accuracy, leading one Air Force spokesperson to estimate that its "kill capacity" was eight times that of Minuteman I. Minuteman II was deployed first at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota. In September 1965, South Dakota Congressman E.Y. Berry announced that the Ellsworth AFB facilities would also receive the new missile system. According to Berry, Minuteman II would help Ellsworth AFB remain "one of the nation's most important military installations." In October 1971, Boeing began refitting the Ellsworth silos to accommodate Minuteman II, and completed the project in March 1973.

Ellsworth Air Force Base: Delta Flight, Minuteman II ICBM. HISTORIC ENGINEERING RECORD, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE (click on image for an enlargement in a new window)

In May 1964, the Soviet Union displayed a battery of anti-ballistic missiles in Moscow's Red Square, prompting concern about the vulnerability of Minuteman I and II missiles. The following year, the Air Force began to develop an even more advanced version of the missile. By late summer of 1968, Minuteman III was ready for testing. Longer and more powerful than its predecessors, Minuteman III offered an improved guidance system that could be retargeted in minutes. But, according to the New York Times, the missile's "most telling advantage" lay in its "revolutionary new warhead: the MIRV, or multiple independently targeted reentry vehicle." The MIRV could deliver three hydrogen bombs to widely scattered targets, a capability that would "render current and contemplated antimissile defense systems largely inadequate," and "thrust the world into a new era of weapons for mass destruction."

The Air Force deployed Minuteman III at Warren, Minot, Grand Forks, and Malmstrom Air Force Bases, and extensively modified the Minuteman launchers at these locations to accommodate the new missiles. Each launch tube was equipped with a new suspension system that could hold the missile absolutely motionless during the aftershocks of a nuclear attack. The Air Force also installed a system of seals, filters, and surge arrestors designed to prevent electronic equipment from being damaged by the powerful electromagnetic waves generated during nuclear explosions.

In July 1975, when the last of the Nation's 550 Minuteman III missiles was lowered into its silo at Malmstrom AFB, Montana, only 450 Minutemen II remained in the American arsenal — at Malmstrom, Ellsworth, and Whiteman Air Force Bases. This force structure remained intact for nearly two more decades.

The first Minuteman LCCs, such as Delta One, were dependent on life-support equipment in the above-ground LCF support building. In later versions, the Air Force buried the life-support equipment underground to help it better withstand a nuclear attack.

The Air Force also redesigned the launch facilities to improve survivability. The power supply unit (shown to the right of each silo) was buried deeper underground, and encapsulated in hardened concrete. The Delta Nine site represents the earliest configuration.

Deactivation of the Minuteman II Weapon System

The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War. On July 31, 1991, President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which placed a limit on the worldwide number of ICBMs and prescribed a process for their destruction. The treaty coincided with the end of the Cold War, and the Air Force's growing disenchantment with the escalating costs of repairing and maintaining the Minuteman II system. On September 27, 1991, President Bush announced on national television his "plan for peace." As part of the plan, Bush called for "the withdrawal from alert, within 72 hours," of all 450 Minuteman II missiles, including those at Ellsworth AFB.

On December 3, 1991, an Air Force crew arrived to remove the first of Ellsworth AFB's 150 Minuteman II missiles: Golf Two (G-2), a launch facility near Red Owl, about 60 miles northeast of Rapid City. The Rapid City Daily Journal reported on the crew's progress.

Disarmament began with snow shovels at dawn . as Airman 1st Class James Comfert and his colleagues cleared the launch-door rail. Six hours later, a Minuteman II intercontinental ballistic missile was stored safely in its transporter/erector truck. G-2 was just a high-tech hole in the ground.

According to the Rapid City Daily Journal, the Minuteman deactivation process at Ellsworth AFB would continue for at least three more years:

First, warheads and guidance systems [will be] removed. Then the missiles will be pulled. . . . The headframes of the missile silos will be destroyed and the tubes will be filled with rubble. The launch control capsules will be buried under rubble and a thick concrete cap. The land and above-ground buildings at launch control centers will be sold.

Although all of the Minuteman II facilities at Ellsworth AFB were slated for demolition, the Air Force, in conjunction with the National Park Service, selected two representative sites — Launch Control Facility Delta One and Launch Facility Delta Nine — for possible preservation as nationally significant icons of the Cold War. When the Minuteman II deactivation is completed in the mid-1990s, these two Ellsworth AFB sites will be the only remaining intact examples of the original Minuteman configuration.

Evolution of Minuteman Facilities

On September 27, 1991, President George Bush announced his "plan for peace," which included the "withdrawal from alert, within 72 hours, of all 450 Minuteman II intercontinental ballistic missiles." The actual physical removal of the missiles began in December 1991, when Air Force crews began pulling the unarmed Minutemen from their silos. Cables were lowered from a transporter/erector truck and attached to the missile by a crew inside the silo. The missile was then slowly raised into the truck and secured for transport.


Minutemen - History

Delta Nine Missile Pull, 1993
The Acton Minutemen were a group of men, mostly farmers, from the town
of Acton, in the colony of Massachusetts, who formed a company for the
purpose of defending the town and the colony against attack. Ellos eran
trained and drilled in the use of their weapons, namely the musket and
bayonet. They were able to muster (or gather) in just a few minutes' time
after the signal was given throughout the town. Their ability to ready
themselves so quickly gave rise to the term "Minutemen". All of the
surrounding towns to Acton also had militia or Minute companies, and
each was ready to defend their own town or join together to defend the
greater colony.

Acton's Minute company, under the leadership of Captain Isaac Davis, mustered at Davis's house, (which still stands at 39
Hayward Rd. today) and departed from there with their fifer, young Luther Blanchard, playing "The White Cockade" , to march
the seven miles to the fields overlooking the North Bridge in Concord. At the town line crossing into Concord, Isaac Davis
stopped and gave any man who did not wish to proceed, the chance to turn around and return to his home - no one did. En el
Barrett farm in Concord, which lay directly in the path that Acton was marching on, an advance scouting party of British soldiers
were searching for stored weapons and munitions - the reason for the entire British advance from Boston. Alerted by perhaps
Colonel Barrett himself, who had ridden back to his farm from the North Bridge, Acton's Minutemen skirted around them by
going off the road, once again playing "The White Cockade" , through a section of woods and fields, and rejoining the road
again about a half-mile ahead at the Widow Brown's tavern, thus avoiding an early confrontation. The Minutemen continued the
rest of the march to the bridge. (Today's Acton Minutemen still march the same 7-mile route to the Old North Bridge on Patriot's
Day, commemorating the courageous acts of those original Acton patriots. And the public is always encouraged to join us - a
great family activity!)

In Lexington, the main column of British forces met their first resistance a small group of armed men. To this day, no one is
sure who fired first, but in the ensuing brief but deadly battle, 8 townspeople were killed on Lexington green. El británico
reformed and marched on. By the time the redcoats got to Concord, however, the Minute companies from many of the
surrounding communities had begun to arrive and were waiting for them in numbers. The point of confrontation was at the
North Bridge, and when the order was given for the colonists to attack, The Acton Minutemen, led by Captain Isaac Davis, were
first in line to advance. History tells us that Acton's company was the only one present that was entirely outfitted with bayonets,
perhaps because Isaac Davis himself was a blacksmith and a gunsmith. When asked if he was afraid to advance, Davis
replied, "I am not, and I haven't a man who is"! They advanced on the British, engaging them at the bridge itself. In the ensuing
3 minute battle, Davis was shot in the heart and died instantly. Thus Isaac Davis became the first commissioned officer to die
in the Revolutionary War, and thus was the first to die for this country. By his side, young Abner Hosmer was also mortally
wounded. Later in the day, James Hayward would also fall dead in a sudden duel with a Regular, whereby each one shot and
killed the other. Although technically not a member of Davis's Minute Company, Hayward will forever be remembered as a
courageous son of Acton.

The British were turned back at the bridge, in large part due to Acton's stand. As the British forces retreated back into Concord
Center, and then all the way back into Charlestown and Boston, they were pursued by colonial forces and armed civilians. los
Redcoats took heavy losses, and eventually had to hole up within the confines of Boston, around which the colonial forces set
up a siege line, setting the stage for a protracted war. April 19th, 1775 was the day it truly all began, and the turning point at the
old North Bridge was the first time the British had been forced to retreat in the field in the face of Colonial opposition.

Acton had other companies of militia, commanded by other officers, but only the company under Isaac Davis was referred to
as a "Minute Company." Many descendants of these men still live in Acton and the surrounding area, and the names of these
brave souls live on in the names of streets and neighborhoods in Acton and surrounding towns. As you drive around the area,
look to see if any of the road signs display the name of one of these great men, and ask yourself, "What brave act would allow
my name to be remembered for hundreds of years?" These men knew the danger of making that fateful march, and they did it
de todas formas. Here are their names:

And for a vivid and detailed account of the background of the Minute man concept, and the battle of April 19th, 1775, read "The
Minutemen" by General John R. Galvin, US Army


Minutemen - History

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American Revolution begins at Battle of Lexington

At about 5 a.m., 700 British troops, on a mission to capture Patriot leaders and seize a Patriot arsenal, march into Lexington to find 77 armed minutemen under Captain John Parker waiting for them on the town’s common green. British Major John Pitcairn ordered the outnumbered Patriots to disperse, and after a moment’s hesitation the Americans began to drift off the green. Suddenly, a shot was fired from an undetermined gun, and a cloud of musket smoke soon covered the green. When the brief Battle of Lexington ended, eight Americans lay dead or dying and 10 others were wounded. Only one British soldier was injured, but the American Revolution had begun.

By 1775, tensions between the American colonies and the British government approached the breaking point, especially in Massachusetts, where Patriot leaders formed a shadow revolutionary government and trained militias to prepare for armed conflict with the British troops occupying Boston. In the spring of 1775, General Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, received instructions from England to seize all stores of weapons and gunpowder accessible to the American insurgents. On April 18, he ordered British troops to march against the Patriot arsenal at Concord and capture Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock, known to be hiding at Lexington.

The Boston Patriots had been preparing for such a military action by the British for some time, and upon learning of the British plan, Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes were ordered to set out to rouse the militiamen and warn Adams and Hancock. When the British troops arrived at Lexington, a group of militiamen were waiting. The Patriots were routed within minutes, but warfare had begun, leading to calls to arms across the Massachusetts countryside.

When the British troops reached Concord at about 7 a.m., they found themselves encircled by hundreds of armed Patriots. They managed to destroy the military supplies the Americans had collected but were soon advanced against by a gang of minutemen, who inflicted numerous casualties. Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, the overall commander of the British force, ordered his men to return to Boston without directly engaging the Americans. As the British retraced their 16-mile journey, their lines were constantly beset by Patriot marksmen firing at them from behind trees, rocks, and stone walls. At Lexington, Captain Parker’s militia had its revenge, killing several British soldiers as the Red Coats hastily marched through his town. By the time the British finally reached the safety of Boston, nearly 300 British soldiers had been killed, wounded, or were missing in action. The Patriots suffered fewer than 100 casualties.

The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first battles of the American Revolution, a conflict that would escalate from a colonial uprising into a world war that, seven years later, would give birth to the independent United States of America.


Words nearby Minutemen

She founded Minutemen American Defense several years ago, supposedly to keep America safe from “illegals.”

Other rumors swirling around the Phoenix area pin the killing on Minutemen or narcotraficantes.

Hearing shots in that direction, the British hurried back, to find their men falling rapidly beneath the fire of the minutemen .

No one saw the minutemen march and countermarch, and no one could hear their feet in the soft grass.

Soon after dawn of April 19 the British troops approached Lexington where they found sixty or seventy minutemen under arms.

Although he acted with the greatest secrecy, he was unable to keep his plans from the watchful minutemen .

About two hundred of them stood guard at the North Bridge, while a body of minutemen gathered on a hill on the opposite side.


Minutemen - History

History Lesson, Pt. 2

Songfacts®:

Minutemen formed part of the influential California Punk movement that emerged in the late 1970s. This song is about that scene and the different subcultures within it, including the Hardcore scene, which compromised of bands like Black Flag, Circle Jerks and Suicidal Tendencies. Mike Watt of Minutemen told us that he wanted to pay tribute to the multifaceted Punk movement: "You've got to understand, Punk in the US in those days was this tiny scene. But we were so involved in it, it seemed important. So this was a history lesson. The meaning is like, I'm going to tell the story of this band and show you guys that we're not elitist over you, but I never really heard the meaning of the song described to me like I wrote it. It means something different to other people."

Watt told us that he was specifically addressing the younger punks in this song: "Nowadays, when people talk about the old days, I don't say scene. I say movement. Because I really believed it was. I don't believe the Minutemen would have even existed without that movement. So, in 'History Lesson Pt. II' I was commenting on this thing where even though Minutemen was kind of from a different world from these young hardcore people, we weren't old men yet. So I was trying to say, the way I looked at the aesthetics of this punk scene, there's not a lot of difference between us, except some stylistic things, which is natural, because we've all got different kinds of expression. I was actually talking to those younger guys, the younger punk guys in a way, saying we don't look down on you."

Double Nickels on the Dime is a double album, spanning 45 songs, which blend a myriad of genres and tackle a variety of themes, including the Vientam War and racism. Watt told us that Hüsker Dü's double album, Zen Arcade, inspired Minutemen to write a similarly long LP: "We had an album done and ready to go. They didn't have a title for it yet, but the Hüskers came to town and recorded Zen Arcade. And we go, 'Wow, they made a double album, we should do that, too.'" Watt said that he considers Double Nickels on the Dime to be "the best album" that he has ever played on. In 2004, Piedra rodante magazine ranked it at #411 on their "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time" list.

The album title was a response to the Sammy Hagar song, "I Can't Drive 55," which protested against the federally imposed speed limit of 55 miles per hour on all US highways. Watt said Minutemen thought Hagar's complaints were absurd: "We couldn't really have a concept as much, except this idea that Sammy Hagar couldn't drive 55 miles an hour. You know, that stupid thing. 'We'll drive the speed limit and we'll try to play crazy music.'" "Double nickels" means 55 miles per hour in trucker lingo, while "the Dime" refers to Interstate 10 - the highway on which Boon later died.


Ver el vídeo: Twp Minutemen Soccer @ Haddonfield 2nd Half (Febrero 2023).